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    Questions on Employment and Entrepreneurship Policy for College Graduates (2015 Edition)

    资讯来源: 发布时间:2015-06-15 Publisher: Source of information: Release time: 2015-06-15

    I. Encouraging enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, to recruit college graduates for employment 1. What are the state's policies and measures to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises to recruit college graduates?
    According to the State Council's Opinions on Further Improving Employment and Entrepreneurship Work in the New Situation (Guo Fa [2015] No. 23) and the Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job of Entrepreneurship and Employment for General Colleges and Universities in 2014 (Guo Fa [2014] No. 22), "Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job for the Graduates of General Colleges and Universities in China in 2013" (Guobanfa [2013] No. 35), and "Opinions of the State Council on Further Supporting the Healthy Development of Small and Micro Enterprises" (Guo Fa [2012] No. 14) and the State Council Notice on Further Improving the Employment of Graduates from General Colleges and Universities (Guo Fa [2011] No. 16) and other documents stipulated:
    (1) For SMEs that have recruited college graduates to a certain number, local finance should give priority to arranging funds to support the development of SMEs, and preferentially provide discounts on loans for technological transformation.
    (2) The newly recruited and registered unemployed college graduates of small labor-intensive enterprises in the year reached more than 30% of the company's existing employees (15% of enterprises with more than 100 employees) and signed labor contracts with them for more than one year. Small enterprises can apply for a small secured loan of up to 2 million yuan and enjoy a 50% financial discount.
    (3) Those graduates from colleges and universities who find employment in SMEs shall enjoy the same treatment as similar personnel in state-owned enterprises and institutions in terms of professional and technical title evaluation, application for scientific research projects, application of scientific research results or honorary titles.
    (4) For small and micro enterprises newly recruiting college graduates in the graduation year, if they sign a labor contract for more than one year and pay social insurance premiums, they will be given a one-year social insurance subsidy.
    2. What are the state's policies and measures to guide state-owned enterprises to recruit college graduates?
    According to the State Council's Opinions on Further Improving Employment and Entrepreneurship Work in the New Situation (Guo Fa [2015] No. 23) and the Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job of Entrepreneurship and Employment for General Colleges and Universities in 2014 (Guo Fa [2014] No. 22), "Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job for Graduates of General Colleges and Universities in China in 2013" (Guobanfa [2013] No. 35) and "On Doing Well for State-owned Enterprises Recruiting Universities in 2013-2014 The Notice on Graduates' Work-related Issues (National Assets Administration issued [2013] No. 37) and other documents stipulated:
    (1) Central enterprises undertaking the task of supporting Tibet, Qinghai, and Xinjiang counterparts should actively build jobs for local college graduates in conjunction with aid project construction.
    (2) Establish a public recruitment system for state-owned enterprises and institutions, and promote the disclosure of recruitment information, processes, and results.
    (3) State-owned enterprises recruit fresh graduates of universities. Except for special posts such as secrets, public recruitment should be implemented. Information on recruiting fresh graduates of universities should be publicly posted on the government website, and the registration time should be no less than 7 days. Publicize and clarify the supervision channels, and the publicity period shall be no less than 7 days.
    3. What preferential policies do colleges and universities recruit for employment difficulties enjoy?
    In accordance with the "Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security on Further Strengthening the Management of Special Funds for Employment" (Cai She [2011] No. 64), all types of enterprises (units) are recruited to qualify for employment difficulties in college graduates If you sign a labor contract and pay social insurance premiums, you will be subsidized according to the basic old-age insurance premiums, basic medical insurance premiums, and unemployment insurance premiums actually paid for college graduates with difficulty in employment, excluding enterprises (units) and individuals who should pay Other social insurance premiums.
    According to the relevant provisions of the Employment Promotion Law, persons with difficulty in employment are those who are unable to achieve employment due to physical conditions, skill levels, family factors, land loss, etc., and those who have not been employed for a certain period of time. The specific scope of persons in employment difficulties shall be prescribed by the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government based on the actual conditions of their respective administrative regions.
    Enterprises (units) list the payment of those eligible for social insurance subsidies on a quarterly basis and apply to the local human resources and social security department for subsidies. Application materials for social insurance subsidies should be attached: a list of persons eligible for social insurance subsidies, a copy of "ID", a copy of "employment permit", a copy of employment contract and other employment certification materials, a social issue issued by the social insurance collection agency Submissions of insurance premiums (single), basic accounts of enterprises (units) and other voucher materials, etc. After review by the human resources and social security department, the financial department will pay the subsidy funds to the basic accounts of enterprises (units) opened in the bank .
    4. What preferential policies do companies enjoy for pre-job training for college graduates?
    According to the "Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job in the Employment and Entrepreneurship of Graduates of General Colleges and Universities in China in 2014" (Guo Fa [2014] No. 22), "Relevant Issues Concerning Further Strengthening the Management of Special Funds for Employment in the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security" Notice (Caishe [2011] No. 64) and other documents stipulate that college graduates who have newly recruited in the graduation year sign a labor contract with a term of more than 6 months, and within 6 months from the date of signing the labor contract, the enterprise will rely on its training If an organization or a government-recognized training organization conducts pre-employment employment skills training, enterprises will be given a fixed amount of vocational training subsidies in accordance with a certain percentage of the local vocational training subsidy standards based on the performance of labor contracts after training.
    Before carrying out pre-job training, the company needs to submit the training plan outline, the roster of trainees, a copy of the "ID card", and a copy of the labor contract to the local human resources and social security department for the record. After the training, the employees will continue to perform the labor contract. , Apply to the human resources and social security department for vocational training subsidies. After the application materials have been reviewed by the human resources and social security department, the financial department will directly transfer the subsidy funds to the basic account opened by the enterprise in accordance with the regulations. Enterprises applying for vocational training subsidies should attach: vouchers such as the roster of trainers, a copy of the "ID" of the trainer, a copy of the "Employment and Business Permit", a copy of the labor contract, and a certificate of vocational training.
    For small and micro enterprises newly recruiting college graduates to carry out pre-job training in accordance with regulations, localities should appropriately raise the training fee subsidy standard according to local price levels.
    5. How to calculate the working age of college graduates from enterprises to institutions?
    According to the State Council's Notice on Further Improving the Employment of Graduates from General Colleges and Universities (Guo Fa [2011] No. 16) and other documents, if graduates of colleges and universities find employment from enterprises, social organizations, and institutions, they shall participate in enterprises in accordance with regulations. The years of payment of basic endowment insurance for employees are consolidated into continuous working age.
    6. Can university graduates find employment in enterprises, especially SMEs?
    According to the "Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job in Starting Employment of General Colleges and Universities in China in 2014" (Guo Fa [2014] No. 22), The "Notice" (Guobanfa [2013] No. 35) document stipulates that the employment procedures of college graduates should be simplified and the institutional barriers to mobile employment between different regions and different types of units should be eliminated. Effectively implement the policy of allowing college graduates, including junior college students, to go through the formalities of settlement (in the case of creation) (the municipalities shall implement the relevant regulations).
    Provincial capitals and the following cities need to lift restrictions on absorbing college graduates to settle down and simplify related procedures. Fresh graduates should present the "Ordinary College Graduation Certificate", "National Ordinary College Graduate Employment Registration Certificate", and the " The employment agreement or labor (employment) contract shall be used for settlement procedures; non-graduate graduates shall complete the registration procedure with the labor (employment) contract signed with the employer and the "university college graduation certificate". If college graduates find employment in small and micro enterprises and start their own businesses, their archives can be kept free of charge by public employment service agencies at the local city and county levels. The procedures for the transfer of college graduate files, the correction of the grading table and the adjustment and reassignment procedures are no longer necessary materials for receiving and reviewing the archives.
    7. How to keep the personnel files of mobile personnel?
    According to the "Notice on Further Strengthening the Management of Miscellaneous Personnel File Management Services" (Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security [2014] No. 90) and the Interim Provisions on the Management of Migrant Personnel File Management, Migrant Personnel Files specifically include: non-public enterprises and social organizations Files of hired personnel; files of resigned, dismissed, cancelled (employed) or dismissed staff; files of personnel who have been terminated or terminated from employment (hired) with enterprises or institutions; non-employed college graduates and technical secondary schools Files of graduates; files of students studying abroad at their own expense and other personnel who have gone abroad (privately); files of Chinese employees of permanent representative offices of foreign enterprises; files of freelance or flexible employment personnel; files of other social management personnel.
    The management of mobile personnel files is implemented by a centralized and unified management system. The competent department is the government's human resources and social security department, and accepts the supervision and guidance of the party committee organization department at the same level. The personnel files of migrant personnel are specifically managed by public employment and talent service agencies above the county level (including county level) and units authorized by the human resources and social security department. Other units may not manage the personnel files of mobile personnel without authorization. It is strictly forbidden for individuals to keep their own or others' files. The personnel files of inter-regional migrants may be managed by public employment and talent service agencies where their household registration is located or where their current work unit is located.
    If college graduates find employment in an institution, institution, or state-owned enterprise with archives management authority, the unit will directly receive and manage the archives. If you are employed in a unit (private enterprises, foreign-funded enterprises, etc.) that does not have the authority to manage archives, public employment and talent service agencies in various places may be responsible for providing personnel agency services such as archives management. If college graduates have no employment when they leave school, the archives can be uniformly sent back to the public employment and talent service agency where the original household registration is located for custody. Archives are not allowed for personal storage.
    Starting from January 1, 2015, the collection of personnel relations and file storage fees, inspection fees, certification fees, and file transfer fees will be cancelled. Public employment and talent service agencies at all levels should provide free basic public services for personnel files of mobile personnel.
    8. What is a personnel agency?
    Public employment and talent service agencies can accept the entrustment of employers and individuals within the specified scope of business to engage in the following personnel agency services: (1) personnel file management of mobile personnel; (2) political review for leaving the country for personal reasons; (3) within the specified scope Apply for or organize review of professional and technical qualifications; (4) Transfer to positive grades and seniority approval; (5) College and secondary school graduate acceptance procedures; (6) Other personnel agency matters.
    9. How do college graduates handle personnel agency?
    According to the relevant provisions of the "Regulations on the Management of the Talent Market", the personnel agency method can be entrusted by the unit collectively or by individuals; it can be entrusted by multiple agents or by individual agents; it can be entrusted by all members of the unit or by some personnel .
    Units entrusted with personnel agency must submit valid certificates and power of attorney to the agency to determine the agency items. After being approved by the agency, the agency and the entrusting unit shall sign a personnel agency contract, clarify the rights and obligations of both parties, and establish a personnel agency relationship.
    10. How do college graduates sign labor contracts with employers?
    Article 7 of the Labor Contract Law stipulates that an employer shall establish a labor relationship with a worker from the date of employment. Article 10 provides that to establish a labor relationship, a written labor contract shall be concluded. Where a labor relationship has been established and a written labor contract has not been concluded at the same time, a written labor contract shall be concluded within one month from the date of employment. Where an employer and a laborer conclude a labor contract before employment, the labor relationship shall be established from the date of employment.
    Article 8 stipulates that when employing units (enterprises, individual economic organizations, private non-enterprise units, etc.) recruit workers, they shall truthfully inform the workers of the work content, working conditions, work place, occupational hazards, work safety status, labor compensation , And other situations that the worker requires to know; the employer has the right to know the basic situation of the worker directly related to the labor contract, and the worker should truthfully explain.
    Article 9 stipulates that an employer shall not employ a laborer's resident identity card and other documents when recruiting a laborer, nor shall it require the laborer to provide a guarantee or collect property from the laborer in another name.
    11. What is social insurance? What social insurance systems has China established?
    Social insurance refers to the adoption of legislation by the state to raise funds through multiple channels in accordance with the principle of corresponding rights and obligations, and provide material assistance (including cash subsidies and services) to insured persons in the event of risks such as old age, illness, work injury, unemployment, and childbirth. ), So that they can enjoy basic living security and avoid or reduce economic losses.
    Article 2 of the Social Insurance Law stipulates that China establishes basic social insurance systems such as basic old-age insurance, basic medical insurance, work injury insurance, unemployment insurance, and maternity insurance to protect citizens in accordance with the law from the state and the country in the event of old age, illness, work injury, unemployment, and childbirth The right of society to material help. Among them, the basic endowment insurance system includes the employee basic endowment insurance system, the new rural social insurance system, and the urban residents social endowment insurance system; the basic medical insurance system includes the employee basic medical insurance system, the new rural cooperative medical system, and the urban resident medical insurance system.
    12. What social insurance obligations should the employer fulfill? What are the social insurance rights?
    (1) Social insurance obligations: one is the obligation to apply for social insurance registration; the second is the obligation to declare and pay social insurance premiums; the third is the obligation to withhold and pay employees' social insurance; the fourth is to inform employees of the details of paying social insurance premiums Obligations.
    (2) Social insurance rights: First, the right to inquire and check their payment records for free; second, the right to ask social insurance agencies to provide social insurance consulting and other related services; third, they can participate in social insurance supervision committees, and work on social insurance Put forward advisory opinions and suggestions, and implement social supervision. Fourth, for acts that infringe on their own rights and interests and not handle social insurance affairs in accordance with the law, they have the right to apply for administrative reconsideration or bring administrative lawsuits. In addition, they have the right to report and complain about violations of social insurance laws and regulations.
    13. What are the rights of individuals participating in social insurance?
    University graduates enjoy the following rights after paying social insurance premiums according to law:
    (1) The right to social security benefits according to law;
    (2) The right to monitor the payment of fees by the unit;
    (3) Have the right to inquire, check their payment and enjoy social insurance benefits and rights records with the social insurance agency for free;
    (4) The right to request social insurance agencies to provide social insurance consulting and other related services;
    (5) For acts that infringe on their own rights and interests and do not handle social insurance affairs in accordance with the law, they have the right to apply for administrative reconsideration or bring an administrative lawsuit in accordance with the law.
    In addition, they have the right to report and complain about violations of social insurance laws and regulations.
    14. What is the current state's regulation on the payment of social insurance premiums by employers, their employees and insured individuals?
    (1) The rate at which employers and their employees pay social insurance premiums. According to the "Decision of the State Council on Improving the Basic Pension Insurance System for Enterprise Employees" (Guo Fa [2005] No. 38), the "Decision of the State Council on Establishing a Basic Medical Insurance System for Urban Employees" (Guo Fa [1998] No. 44), "Unemployment Insurance The Regulations (Order No. 258 of the State Council) stipulates that the employers shall pay the basic endowment insurance, basic medical insurance and unemployment insurance rates at 20%, 6%, and 2% of their total wages in principle; Payment of work-related injury insurance premiums is subject to industry differential rates and floating rates in accordance with the "Work-related Injury Insurance Regulations" (Order No. 586 of the State Council). Relevant rates are determined in accordance with the relevant state regulations; employers pay maternity insurance premiums in accordance with the "Enterprise The "Provisional Measures for Employees' Maternity Insurance" (Ministry of Labor [1994] No. 504) stipulates that the implementation shall be determined by the regional government based on the actual situation, but shall not exceed 1% of the total wages of the employer. Employees themselves pay basic pension insurance, basic medical insurance and unemployment insurance at rates of 8%, 2%, and 1% of their salaries, respectively.
    (2) The rate of social insurance premiums paid by participating individuals. According to the "Decision of the State Council on Improving the Basic Endowment Insurance System for Enterprise Employees" (Guo Fa [2005] No. 38), the contribution rate of individual industrial and commercial households without flexible workers and flexible employees to the basic endowment insurance for employees is 20%, of which 8 % Is credited to personal accounts; the rate of payment of basic medical insurance for individual industrial and commercial households and flexible employees who are not employed is determined according to the relevant national regulations.
    (3) Urban residents participate in resident medical insurance and rural residents participate in new-type rural social endowment insurance and new-type rural cooperative medical care, mainly paying social insurance fees in a fixed amount.
    15. How do college graduates handle labor and personnel disputes?
    Labor and personnel disputes can be resolved through negotiation. If the parties are unwilling to negotiate or fail to negotiate, they can apply to a mediation organization for mediation; if they are unwilling to perform mediation or fail to perform after mediation agreement is reached, they can apply for arbitration to the labor and personnel dispute arbitration committee; In addition to the provisions, litigation can be filed in the people's court.
    For employers' violations of labor security laws, regulations and rules, college graduates can report and complain to the human resources and social security department. The labor security supervision agency will accept, correct and investigate related illegal acts according to law.
    16. What are service outsourcing and service outsourcing companies?
    Service outsourcing means that an enterprise outsources its non-core business and uses the best external professional team to undertake the business, so that it can focus on the core business, to reduce costs, improve efficiency, enhance the core competitiveness of the enterprise and respond to environmental changes. A management model of competence.
    A service outsourcing enterprise refers to an enterprise that has signed a medium and long-term service contract with a service outsourcing contractor to undertake service outsourcing business.
    17. What areas and regions does the service outsourcing industry currently involve?
    Service outsourcing is divided into information technology outsourcing services (ITO), technical business process outsourcing services (BPO), and technical knowledge process outsourcing (KPO). ITO includes software R & D and outsourcing, information technology R & D service outsourcing, and information system operation and maintenance outsourcing. BPO includes such fields as enterprise business process design services, enterprise content management database services, enterprise operation database services, and enterprise supply chain management database services. KPO includes intellectual property research, pharmaceutical and biotechnology research and development, product technology research and development, industrial design, analytics and data mining, animation and online game design research and development, education courseware research and development, engineering design and other fields.
    China currently has 21 service outsourcing demonstration cities, namely Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Dalian, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Harbin, Chengdu, Nanjing, Xi'an, Jinan, Hangzhou, Hefei, Nanchang, Changsha, Daqing, Suzhou, Wuxi and Xiamen.
    18. What financial support does a service outsourcing company have for college graduates?
    According to the Reply of the General Office of the State Council on Encouraging the Rapid Development of the Service Outsourcing Industry (State Council Letter [2010] No. 69), the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the Ministry of Commerce's Several Opinions on Accelerating the Development of the Service Outsourcing Industry and Promoting the Employment of College Graduates "(Ministry of Human and Social Affairs [2009] No. 123) and other documents stipulate that for qualified service outsourcing enterprises, for each newly recruited employee with a college degree or higher to engage in service outsourcing work and sign a labor contract of more than one year, the enterprise shall not be granted Training support of more than 4,500 yuan per person; service outsourcing talents (college degree or above) trained by qualified training institutions, passing service training outsourcing professional knowledge and skills assessment and signing with service outsourcing companies for more than one year of labor For the contract, training support of no more than 500 yuan per person will be given to the training institution.
    If a service outsourcing company recruits college graduates to participate in employment probation, it will enjoy the relevant financial subsidy policies. Service outsourcing companies absorb the employment difficulties of college graduates and enjoy support policies such as social insurance subsidies. University graduates with employment difficulties who participate in service outsourcing training can enjoy vocational training subsidies and vocational skill appraisal subsidies in accordance with regulations.
    2. Encourage and guide college graduates to find employment at the grass-roots level in urban and rural areas, in the central and western regions, as well as in ethnic regions, poverty-stricken areas, and remote areas. 19. What is grass-roots employment?
    Grassroots employment is to work in the rural and urban grassroots. In recent years, the state has introduced a series of preferential policies to encourage college graduates to actively participate in the construction of a new socialist countryside, the construction of urban communities, and recruitment into the army. Generally speaking, "the grassroots" includes both the vast countryside and urban street communities; it covers party and government agencies, enterprises and institutions below the county level, as well as social organizations, non-public ownership organizations, and SMEs; it includes both unit employment and Self-employment and self-employment.
    20. What are the main preferential policies of the state to encourage graduates to find employment at the grassroots level?
    According to the State Council's Opinions on Further Improving Employment and Entrepreneurship Work in the New Situation (Guo Fa [2015] No. 23) and the Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job of Entrepreneurship and Employment for General Colleges and Universities in 2014 (Guo Fa [2014] No. 22), "Notice of the General Office of the State Council on Doing a Good Job in the Employment of Graduates of General Colleges and Universities in China in 2013" (Guobanfa [2013] No. 35) and "The State Council on Doing a Better Job of Graduates in General Colleges and Universities Work Notice "(Guo Fa [2011] No. 16) and other documents stipulated:
    (1) Improve the method of further tilting the salary to the grassroots level, improve the service guarantee mechanism for college graduates to work at the grassroots level, and encourage graduates to work in townships and villages, especially in difficult township institutions and institutions.
    (2) For graduates of colleges and universities who go to the central and western regions, hard and remote areas, and old industrial bases to work for a certain period of service, tuition compensation and national student loan reimbursement will be provided in accordance with regulations (each student of this college each year The maximum is no more than 8,000 yuan, and the maximum for each graduate student is no more than 12,000 yuan per year).
    (3) Combined with the advancement of government procurement services, a group of public management and social service posts are purchased at the grassroots level (especially the streets (towns) and communities (villages)), and priority is given to absorbing employment of college graduates.
    (4) Implement and improve the apprenticeship subsidy policy, and appropriately increase the apprenticeship subsidy rate for apprentice units with a retention rate of more than 50% at the end of the apprenticeship period.
    (5) The job-seeking subsidy will be adjusted to the job-seeking start-up subsidy, and the target scope will be extended to graduates of colleges and universities who have received national student loans in the graduation year.
    Various regions should combine the urbanization process and the requirements of equalization of public services to fully explore basic public management and service areas such as education, labor employment, social security, medical care, housing security, social work, cultural sports and services for the disabled, and agricultural technology promotion. Employment potential to absorb employment of college graduates. It is necessary to guide the promotion of agricultural scientific and technological innovation and improve the agricultural socialization service system to guide more college graduates to join modern agriculture.
    College graduates are engaged in professional and technical work in grass-roots units below the county level in the central and western regions and in hard and remote areas. When applying for the corresponding professional title, they may not take the foreign language examination of the professional title or relax the foreign language performance requirements. Fully explore the employment potential of social organizations to attract college graduates. For college graduates who are employed by social organizations, foundations, and private non-enterprise units in provincial capitals and cities below the provincial level, the public employment personnel service agencies in the place must assist in the settlement procedures and The evaluation of technical titles enjoys the same treatment as similar personnel in state-owned enterprises and institutions.
    For college graduates who are engaged in social management and public service work in rural grassroots and urban communities, who meet the employment conditions of non-profit positions and are employed in non-profit positions, social insurance subsidies and non-profit positions will be granted in accordance with the provisions of the current national employment promotion policy. subsidy.
    (1) Those who find employment in other social management and public service positions in the rural grassroots and urban communities shall be given remuneration or living allowances, while participating in relevant social insurance in accordance with regulations.
    (2) Beginning in 2012, civil servants recruited by agencies above the provincial level, except for some special positions, should be recruited from personnel with more than 2 years of work experience at the grassroots level. Institutions below the city (prefecture) level, especially county and township agencies, should take effective measures to actively attract outstanding fresh graduates to apply for admission. The employment plan should be mainly used to recruit fresh graduates.
    (3) For college graduates with grass-roots work experience, priority will be given to graduate recruitment and employment unit selection.
    21. What are grassroots social management and public service positions?
    The so-called grass-roots social management and public service posts include college student village officials, support education, support for agriculture, support for medical care, rural poverty alleviation, and legal aid, employment assistance, social security assistance, cultural and scientific services, elderly care services, and home services for the disabled in urban communities. And low-cost housing supporting services.
    In April 2009, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security issued the “Notice on Promulgating the List of the First Batch of Basic-level Social Management and Public Service Posts” (Ministry of Social Affairs [2009] No. 135), and announced the first batch of basic-level social management and Directory of public service posts to guide local governments to do a good job of encouraging and guiding college graduates to find employment at the grassroots level. This batch of job listings are divided into grass-roots human resources and social security management, grass-roots agricultural services, grass-roots medical and health services, grass-roots cultural and scientific services, grass-roots legal services, grass-roots civil affairs, care for the elderly, disability services, grass-roots municipal management, Grass-roots public environment and facility management and maintenance, and other 9 major areas, including public employment services, social security, labor relationship coordination, labor supervision, agriculture, poverty alleviation and development, medical care in grassroots units such as streets (towns) and communities (villages) 50 kinds of job management services related to health, health care, epidemic prevention, culture, science and technology, sports, law promotion, civil mediation, care for the elderly, old age care, child care, disability assistance, management and maintenance of public facilities and equipment.
    22. What are other grassroots social management and public service positions?
    Corresponding social management and public service posts developed or established at the grassroots level in street communities, townships, and so on. Partly funded by the government or by relevant organizations and units. The arranged personnel enjoy relevant subsidies in accordance with regulations.
    23. What is a non-profit position?
    Management and service positions developed by the government to meet the public interest of the community and residents. For those who find it difficult to find employment in public welfare posts, social insurance subsidies and job subsidies are provided in accordance with regulations. College graduates with employment difficulties who meet the conditions for resettlement of non-profit positions can enjoy employment assistance policies for non-profit positions in accordance with regulations.
    24. What is social insurance subsidy for public welfare posts?
    According to the "Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security on Further Strengthening the Management of Special Funds for Employment" (Cai She [2011] No. 64), the "social insurance subsidy" for people with employment difficulties shall be implemented with a "first payment and then supplement" method . In the case of arranging persons with employment difficulties in public welfare positions and paying social insurance premiums, subsidies are paid according to the basic old-age insurance premiums, basic medical insurance premiums, and unemployment insurance premiums actually paid for those with employment difficulties, excluding those payable by individuals with employment difficulties. Basic old-age insurance premiums, basic medical insurance premiums and unemployment insurance premiums, as well as other social insurance premiums payable by enterprises (units) and individuals. The period of social insurance subsidy is generally no longer than 3 years.
    25. What is a non-profit job subsidy?
    Units that arrange employment difficulties for non-profit-making positions will be given job subsidies according to the actual number of people with employment difficulties. The period of subsidy for public welfare posts generally does not exceed 3 years.
    Units that arrange employment difficulties for non-profit positions may apply to the local human resources and social security department for subsidies for non-profit positions on a quarterly basis. The application materials for public welfare position subsidies should be attached: the list of persons eligible for the public welfare position subsidies and a copy of the "ID card", a copy of the "Employment and Business Permit", a detailed payroll account (single), and the basic unit issued by the bank After the voucher materials such as accounts are reviewed by the human resources and social security department, the financial department will pay the subsidy funds to the basic account opened by the unit in the bank.
    26. In order to encourage college graduates to find employment at the grassroots level, what are the main contents of the tuition fee compensation and student loan loan compensation policy?
    In accordance with the "Notice on Adjusting and Improving the Related Policies and Measures for National Student Loans" (Cai Jiao [2014] No. 180), and the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education on Printing and Distributing the "Interim Measures for Tuition of Higher Education Graduates and the Compensation for National Student Loans" Notice (Caijiao [2009] No. 15) and other documents stipulate that fresh graduates (full-time junior colleges, higher vocational students, graduate students, second bachelor degree graduates) of the central government-affiliated colleges and universities should go to the grassroots in the central and western regions and hard and remote areas If the employment and service period of the unit is more than 3 years (including 3 years), the tuition fee shall be compensated by the state. If a national student loan (including the national student loan of colleges and universities and student origin credit student loans, the same below) is obtained during the study period, the compensated tuition fee is preferentially used to repay the principal of the national student loan and the interest before it is fully repaid . Except for orientation, commissioning, and students who have enjoyed the full tuition waiver policy while on campus.
    At present, the national student loan funding standards have been adjusted so that full-time regular college students (including second bachelor's degrees, higher vocational students, the same below) apply for a loan amount not exceeding 8,000 yuan per person per year; the total annual tuition and housing fee standards If it is less than 8,000 yuan, the loan amount can be determined according to the total of tuition and accommodation fees. Each full-time graduate student applies for a loan amount of no more than 12,000 yuan per year; if the total annual tuition and accommodation fee standards are less than 12,000 yuan, the loan amount can be determined according to the sum of tuition and accommodation fee standards.
    After the adjustment of the national student loan funding standards, the Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the General Staff of the Ministry of Education on Printing and Distributing the Measures for the National Funding of Compulsory Military Service for Students in Higher Schools (Caijiao [2013] No. 236), Opinions of the General Staff Department of the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the General Political Department on the Implementation of Educational Subsidy Policies for Retired Soldiers (Cai Jiao [2011] No. 538) and the Interim Measures of the Ministry of Education on Printing and Distributing the "Tuition of College Graduates and the National Student Loan Compensation ”Notice (Caijiao [2009] No. 15) regarding tuition fee compensation, national student loan reimbursement, and tuition subsidy standards shall be adjusted correspondingly to a maximum of 8,000 yuan per person per year for college students and a maximum for each postgraduate person per year. Not more than 12,000 yuan. Compensation for tuition fees, reimbursement of state student loans, and other tuition subsidies will still be implemented in accordance with the original regulations.
    27. What is the scope of the country's employment in implementing the state's compensation for tuition fees and subsidized student loans?
    The state implements corresponding tuition fee compensation and student loan reimbursement for graduates of central government departments who have been employed by grassroots units in the central and western regions and in hard and remote areas and have fulfilled a certain period of service. The geographical scope involved here mainly includes:
    (1) Western regions: Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang and other 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities);
    (2) Central regions: Hebei, Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Hainan and other 10 provinces;
    (3) Hard and remote areas: Some states, counties and ethnic minority areas with poor economic levels and conditions determined by the State Council. (For details, please visit the Chinese government website: http://www.gov.cn)
    (4) Grassroots units:
    ① Government agencies, enterprises and institutions below the county level in the central and western regions and hard remote areas, including township (town) government agencies, rural primary and secondary schools, state-owned agricultural (pastoral, forest) farms, agricultural technology extension stations, animal husbandry and veterinary stations, township health centers, Family planning service stations, township cultural stations, township labor employment service stations, etc .;
    ② The work site is located in the frontline of hard industry production of central units such as meteorology, earthquakes, geology, hydropower construction, coal, petroleum, navigation, nuclear industry, etc.
    28. What is the standard and duration of tuition fee compensation and student loan compensation?
    Tuition fee compensation, national student loan reimbursement, and tuition fee reduction and exemption standards. The maximum for each junior college student is no more than 8,000 yuan per year, and the maximum for each graduate student is no more than 12,000 yuan per year.
    Undergraduate, junior college (higher vocational), postgraduate and second bachelor degree graduates are required to pay tuition fees or compensate for national student loans for years, which are calculated according to the corresponding academic system prescribed by the state. If the duration of study in the school is less than the required period of the corresponding academic system, the compensation for tuition fees or the duration of the student loan shall be calculated based on the actual study time. If the duration of study in the school is longer than the length of the corresponding academic year, it shall be calculated in accordance with the prescribed academic year.
    The tuition fees or one-third of the total national student loans are repaid in each decade, and the repayment is completed in the thirties.
    29. How do college graduates affiliated to the central department apply for tuition fee compensation and student loan compensation?
    (1) Submit the "Tuition Fees and National Student Loan Compensation Application Form" and the graduates, the employment unit and the school signed the three-party service to the grass-roots units in the central and western regions and hard remote areas for more than 3 years when completing the procedures for leaving school. Employment agreement
    (2) If you have obtained a national student loan while studying at school, when signing a post-graduation repayment plan with the national student loan handling bank, indicate that you have applied for a national student loan reimbursement. Eligibility without repayment to the bank;
    (3) Universities are responsible for reviewing application eligibility and reporting to the National Student Financial Aid Management Center.
    30. How do local college graduates get grassroots employment compensation for tuition and student loans?
    According to the "Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Education Circular on Printing and Distributing the" Interim Measures for the Tuition of Higher Education Graduates and the National Student Loan Compensation "(Cai Jiao [2009] No. 15), all localities must study and formulate the local graduates' university本辖区艰苦边远地区基层单位就业的学费补偿和助学贷款代偿办法。地方所属高校毕业生到基层就业是否可以获得学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿,以及如何申请办理补偿或代偿等,请向学校所在地政府有关部门查询。
    31. 到基层就业如何办理户口、档案、党团关系等手续?
    对到西部县以下基层单位和艰苦边远地区就业的高校毕业生,实行来去自由的政策,户口可留在原籍或根据本人意愿迁往就业地区;人事档案原则上统一转至就业单位所在地的县级政府人力资源社会保障部门,由公共就业和人才服务机构提供免费人事代理服务;党团组织关系转至就业单位,在工作期间积极要求入党的,由乡镇一级党组织按规定程序办理。
    32. 中央有关部门实施了哪些基层就业项目?
    近年来,中央各有关部门主要组织实施了5个引导高校毕业生到基层就业的专门项目,包括:团中央、教育部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部等四部门从2003年起组织实施的“大学生志愿服务西部计划”;中组部、人力资源社会保障部、教育部等八部门从2006年开始组织实施的“三支一扶”(支教、支农、支医和扶贫)计划;教育部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部、中央编办等四部门从2006年开始组织实施的“农村义务教育阶段学校教师特设岗位计划”;中组部、教育部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部等部门从2008年起组织实施的“选聘高校毕业生到村任职工作”;农业部、人社部、教育部等部门从2103年起组织实施的“农业技术推广服务特设岗位计划”。
    33. 什么是农村义务教育阶段学校教师特设岗位计划?
    2006年,教育部、财政部、原人事部、中央编办下发《关于实施农村义务教育阶段学校教师特设岗位计划的通知》(教师〔2006〕2号),联合启动实施“特岗计划”,公开招聘高校毕业生到“两基”攻坚县农村义务教育阶段学校任教。特岗教师聘期3年。
    34. 农村教师特岗计划实施的地区范围包括哪些?
    2006-2008年“特岗计划”的实施范围以国家西部地区“两基”攻坚县为主(含新疆生产建设兵团的部分团场),包括纳入国家西部开发计划的部分中部省份的少数民族自治州,适当兼顾西部地区一些有特殊困难的边境县、少数民族自治县和少小民族县。2009年,实施范围扩大到中西部地区国家扶贫开发工作重点县。
    35. 农村教师特岗计划招聘对象和条件是什么?
    (1)以高等师范院校和其他全日制普通高校应届本科毕业生为主,可招少量应届师范类专业专科毕业生。
    (2)取得教师资格,具有一定教育教学实践经验,年龄在30岁以下的全日制普通高校往届本科毕业生。
    (3)参加过“大学生志愿服务西部计划”、有从教经历的志愿者和参加过半年以上实习支教的师范院校毕业生同等条件下优先。
    (4)报名者应同时符合教师资格条件要求和招聘岗位要求。
    36. 农村教师特岗计划的招聘程序有哪些?
    特岗教师实行公开招聘,合同管理。合同规定用人单位和应聘人员双方的权利和义务。
    招聘工作由省级教育、人力资源社会保障、财政、编办等相关部门共同负责,遵循“公开、公平、自愿、择优”和“三定”(定县、定校、定岗)原则,按下列程序进行:①公布需求,②自愿报名,③资格审查,④考试考核,⑤集中培训,⑥资格认定,⑦签订合同,⑧上岗任教。
    37. 什么是选聘高校毕业生到村任职?
    2008年,中组部、教育部、财政部、人力资源和社会保障部出台了《关于印发〈关于选聘高校毕业生到村任职工作的意见(试行)〉的通知》(组通字〔2008〕18号),计划用五年时间选聘10万名高校毕业生到农村担任村党支部书记助理、村委会主任助理或团支部书记、副书记等职务。从2010年开始,扩大选聘规模,逐步实现“一村一名大学生村官”计划的目标。选聘的高校毕业生在村工作期限一般为2-3年。
    38. 选聘到村任职的对象是什么?要满足哪些条件?
    选聘对象为30岁以下应届和往届毕业的全日制普通高校专科以上学历的毕业生,重点是应届毕业和毕业1至2年的本科生、研究生,原则上为中共党员(含预备党员),非中共党员的优秀团干部、优秀学生干部也可以选聘。
    基本条件是:①思想政治素质好,作风踏实,吃苦耐劳,组织纪律观念强。②学习成绩良好,具备一定的组织协调能力。③自愿到农村基层工作。④身体健康。此外,参加人力资源社会保障部、团中央等部门组织的到农村基层服务的“三支一扶”、“志愿服务西部计划”等活动期满的高校毕业生,本人自愿且具备选聘条件的,经组织推荐可作为选聘对象。
    39. 选聘到村任职的程序是什么?
    选聘工作一般通过个人报名、资格审查、组织考察、体检、公示、决定聘用、培训上岗等程序进行。
    40. 什么是“三支一扶”计划?
    三支一扶是支教、支医、支农、扶贫的简称。2006年,中组部、原人事部等八部门下发《关于组织开展高校毕业生到农村基层从事支教、支农、支医和扶贫工作的通知》(国人部发〔2006〕16号),以公开招募、自愿报名、组织选拔、统一派遣的方式,从2006年开始连续5年,每年招募2万名高校毕业生,主要安排到乡镇从事支教、支农、支医和扶贫工作。服务期限一般为2-3年。招募对象主要为全国普通高校应届毕业生。
    2011年4月,人力资源社会保障部下发《关于继续做好高校毕业生三支一扶计划实施工作的通知》(人社部发〔2011〕27号),决定继续组织开展高校毕业生“三支一扶”计划,从2011年起,每年选拔2万名,五年内选拔10万名高校毕业生到基层从事“三支一扶”服务。
    41. 什么是大学生志愿服务西部计划?
    大学生志愿服务西部计划由共青团中央牵头,教育部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部共同组织实施。从2003年开始,每年招募1.8万名普通高等学校应届毕业生,到西部贫困县的乡镇从事为期1-3年的教育、卫生、农技、扶贫以及青年中心建设和管理等方面的志愿服务工作。
    42. 什么是农业技术推广服务特设岗位计划?
    农业技术推广服务特设岗位计划由农业部牵头,人力资源社会保障部、教育部和科技部共同组织实施。从2013年开始,每年招募一批普通高等学校应届毕业生,到乡镇或区域性农业技术推广机构从事为期2-3年的农业技术推广、动植物疫病防控、农产品质量安全服务等工作。
    43. 参加中央部门组织实施的基层就业项目,服务期满后享受哪些优惠政策?
    根据中组部、人力资源社会保障部、教育部、财政部、共青团中央《关于统筹实施引导高校毕业生到农村基层服务项目工作的通知》(人社部发〔2009〕42号)等政策规定,参加中央部门组织实施的基层就业项目、服务期满的毕业生,享受以下优惠政策:
    (1)公务员招录优惠:每年拿出公务员考录计划的一定比例,专门用于定向招录服务期满且考核称职(合格)的服务基层项目人员。服务基层项目人员也可报考其他职位。
    (2)事业单位招聘优惠:鼓励在项目结束后留在当地就业,参加各基层就业项目相对应的自然减员空岗,全部聘用服务期满的高校毕业生。从2009年起,到乡镇事业单位服务的高校毕业生服务满1年后,在现岗位空缺情况下,经考核合格,即可与所在单位签订不少于3年的聘用合同。同时,各省(区、市)县及县以上相关的事业单位公开招聘工作人员,应拿出不低于40%的比例,聘用各专门项目服务期满考核合格的高校毕业生。
    (3)考学升学优惠:服务期满后三年内报考硕士研究生初试总分加10分;同等条件下优先录取;高职(高专)学生可免试入读成人本科。
    (4)国家补偿学费和代偿助学贷款政策:参加各基层就业项目的毕业生,符合规定条件的,可享受相应的学费补偿和助学贷款代偿政策。
    (5)服务期满自主创业的,可享受税收优惠、行政事业性收费减免、小额贷款担保和贴息等有关政策。
    (6)其他:各基层就业项目服务年限计算工龄。服务期满到企业就业的,按照规定转接社会保险关系。
    44. 高校毕业生到艰苦边远地区或国家扶贫开发工作重点县就业有什么优惠政策?
    根据《国务院关于进一步做好普通高等学校毕业生就业工作的通知》(国发〔2011〕16号)规定,对到艰苦边远地区或国家扶贫开发工作重点县就业的高校毕业生,在机关工作的,试用期工资可直接按试用期满后工资确定,试用期满后级别工资高定1至2档;在事业单位工作的,可提前转正定级,转正定级时薪级工资高定1至2级。
    三、鼓励大学生应征入伍,报效祖国45. 国家鼓励大学生应征入伍服义务兵役,这里的“大学生”如何界定?
    指根据国家有关规定批准设立、实施高等学历教育的全日制公办普通高等学校、民办普通高等学校和独立学院,按照国家招生规定录取的全日制普通本科、专科(含高职)、研究生、第二学士学位的应(往)届毕业生、在校生和已被普通高校录取但未报到入学的学生。
    征集的大学生以男性为主,女性大学生征集根据军队需要确定。
    46. 公民应征入伍需要满足哪些政治条件?
    征集服现役的公民必须热爱中国共产党,热爱社会主义祖国,热爱人民军队,遵纪守法,品德优良,决心为抵抗侵略、保卫祖国、保卫人民的和平劳动而英勇奋斗。征兵政治审查的内容包括:应征公民的年龄、户籍、职业、政治面貌、宗教信仰、文化程度、现实表现以及家庭主要成员和主要社会关系成员的政治情况等。
    47. 公民应征入伍要满足哪些基本身体条件?
    公民应征入伍要符合国防部颁布的《应征公民体格检查标准》和有关规定。 Among them, there are several basic conditions:
    身高:男性160cm以上,女性158cm以上。
    体重:男性:不超过标准体重的30%,不低于标准体重的15%。
    女性:不超过标准体重的20%,不低于标准体重的15%。 .
    标准体重=(身高-110)kg。
    视力:大学生右眼裸眼视力不低于4.6,左眼裸眼视力不低于4.5。屈光不正,准分子激光手术后半年以上,无并发症,视力达到相应标准的,合格。
    内科:乙型肝炎表面抗原呈阴性,等等。
    48. 应征入伍服义务兵役大学生的年龄是如何规定的?
    男性普通高等学校在校生为年满18至22周岁,高职(专科)毕业生可放宽到23周岁,本科及以上学历毕业生可放宽到24周岁。
    女性普通高等学校在校生为年满18到20周岁,应届毕业生放宽到22周岁。
    49. 高校毕业生应征入伍服义务兵役要经过哪些程序?
    (1)网上报名预征:有应征意向的高校毕业生可在夏秋季征兵开始之前登录“大学生应征入伍网上报名平台”(网址为http://zbbm.chsi.com.cn或http://zbbm.chsi.cn,下同)进行报名,填写、打印《应届毕业生预征对象登记表》和《高校毕业生应征入伍学费补偿国家助学贷款代偿申请表》(以下分别简称《登记表》、《申请表》),交所在高校征兵工作管理部门。
    (2)初审、初检:毕业生离校前,在高校参加身体初检、政治初审,符合条件者确定为预征对象,高校协助兵役机关将《登记表》和《申请表》审核盖章发给毕业生本人,并完成网上信息确认。 The preliminary examination and preliminary inspection shall be completed no later than July 15.
    (3)实地应征:高校应届毕业生可在学校所在地应征入伍,也可在入学前户籍所在地应征入伍。
    (4)组织高校应届毕业生在学校所在地征集的,结合初审、初检工作同步进行体格检查和政治审查,在毕业生离校前完成预定兵,9月初学校所在地县(市、区)人民政府征兵办公室为其办理批准入伍手续。政治审查以本人现实表现为主,由其就读学校所在地的县(市、区)公安部门负责,学校分管部门具体承办,原则上不再对其入学前和就读返乡期间的现实表现情况进行调查。
    (5)在入学前户籍所在地应征入伍的,高校应届毕业生7月30日前将户籍迁回入学前户籍地,持《登记表》和《申请表》到当地县级兵役机关参加实地应征,经体格检查、政治审查合格的,9月初由当地县(市、区)人民政府征兵办公室办理批准入伍手续。
    50. 大学生征集工作由哪个部门牵头负责?
    高校所在地兵役机关会同有关部门进入高校开展征集工作,高校由学生管理部门或学校武装部门牵头负责,有意向参军入伍的大学生可向所在学校学工部(处)、就业中心、资助中心或武装部咨询有关政策。
    51. 高校毕业生应征入伍服义务兵役享受哪些优惠政策?
    高校毕业生应征入伍服义务兵役,除享有优先报名应征、优先体检政审、优先审批定兵、优先安排使用“四个优先”政策,家庭按规定享受军属待遇外,还享受优先选拔使用、学费补偿和国家助学贷款代偿、退役后考学升学优惠、就业服务等政策。
    52. 高校毕业生应征入伍“四个优先”政策是怎样规定的?
    高校毕业生预征对象参军入伍享受“四优先”政策:
    (1)优先报名应征。报名由县级兵役机关直接办理。夏秋季征兵开始前,县级兵役机关通知其报名时间、地点、注意事项等。确定为预征对象的高校毕业生,持《应届毕业生预征对象登记表》,可以直接到学校所在地或户籍所在地县级兵役机关报名应征。
    (2)优先体检政审。体检由县级兵役机关直接办理。夏秋季征兵体检前,县级兵役机关通知其体检时间、地点、注意事项等。确定为预征对象的高校毕业生,未能在规定时间内在学校参加体检的,本人持《应届毕业生预征对象登记表》,可在征兵体检时间内报名直接参加体检。
    (3)优先审批定兵。审批定兵时,应当优先批准体检政审合格的高校毕业生入伍。高职(专科)以上文化程度的合格青年未被批准入伍前,不得批准高中文化程度的青年入伍。
    (4)优先安排使用。在安排兵员去向时,根据高校毕业生的学历、专业和个人特长,优先安排到军兵种或专业技术要求高的部队服役;部队对征集入伍的高校毕业生,优先安排到适合的岗位,充分发挥其专长。
    53. 大学生应征入伍服义务兵役给予国家资助的内容是什么?
    高等学校学生应征入伍服义务兵役国家资助,是指国家对应征入伍服义务兵役的高校学生,在入伍时对其在校期间缴纳的学费实行一次性补偿或获得的国家助学贷款(国家助学贷款包括校园地国家助学贷款和生源地信用助学贷款,下同)实行代偿;应征入伍服义务兵役前正在高等学校就读的学生(含按国家招生规定录取的高等学校新生),服役期间按国家有关规定保留学籍或入学资格、退役后自愿复学或入学的,国家实行学费减免。
    54. 高校学生应征入伍享受学费补偿、国家助学贷款代偿及学费减免的标准是多少?
    按照《关于调整完善国家助学贷款相关政策措施的通知》(财教〔2014〕180号)、《财政部、教育部、总参谋部关于印发<高等学校学生应征入伍服义务兵役国家资助办法>的通知》(财教〔2013〕236号)规定:
    (1)学费补偿、国家助学贷款代偿及学费减免标准,本专科生每人每年最高不超过8000元,研究生每人每年最高不超过12000元。
    (2)学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿金额,按学生实际缴纳的学费或获得的国家助学贷款(国家助学贷款包括本金及其全部偿还之前产生的利息,下同)两者金额较高者执行,据实补偿或者代偿。退役复学后学费减免金额,按学校实际收取学费金额执行。超出标准部分不予补偿、代偿或减免。
    (3)获学费补偿学生在校期间获得国家助学贷款的,补偿资金必须首先用于偿还国家助学贷款。如补偿金额高于国家助学贷款金额,高出部分退还学生。
    55. 高校学生应征入伍服义务兵役都可以享受国家资助政策吗?
    在校期间已免除全部学费的学生,定向生、委培生和国防生,其他不属于服义务兵役到部队参军的学生,均不享受学费补偿和国家助学贷款代偿政策。
    56. 高校学生应征入伍服义务兵役享受学费补偿、国家助学贷款代偿和学费减免的年限如何计算?
    学费补偿、国家助学贷款代偿和学费减免的年限,按照国家对本科、专科(高职)、研究生和第二学士学位规定的相应修业年限据实计算。以入伍时间为准,入伍前已达到的修业规定年限,即为学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿的年限;退役复学后应完成的国家规定的修业年限的剩余期限,即为学费减免的年限;复学后攻读更高层次学历不在减免学费范围之内。
    专升本、本硕连读、中职高职连读、第二学士学位毕业生补偿学费或代偿国家助学贷款的年限,分别按照完成本科、硕士、高职和第二学士学位阶段学习任务规定的学习时间计算。
    专升本、本硕连读学制在校生,在专科或本科学习阶段应征入伍的,以实际学习时间实行学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿;在本科或硕士学习阶段应征入伍的,以本科已学习时间或硕士已学习时间计算,实行学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿,其以前专科学习时间或本科学习时间不计入学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿。中职高职连读学生学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿的年限,按照高职阶段实际学习时间计算。
    57. 高校学生申请应征入伍服义务兵役国家资助的程序是什么?
    (1)应征报名的高校学生登录大学生征兵报名系统,按要求在线填写、打印《高校学生应征入伍学费补偿国家助学贷款代偿申请表》(一式两份,以下简称《申请表》)并提交学校学生资助管理部门。在校期间获得国家助学贷款的学生,需同时提供《国家助学贷款借款合同》复印件和本人签字的一次性偿还贷款计划书。
    (2)学校相关部门对《申请表》中学生的资助资格、标准、金额(如有生源地信用助学贷款,学校应联系贷款经办银行或贷款经办地县级学生资助管理机构确认贷款金额)等相关信息审核无误后,对《申请表》加盖公章,一份留存,一份返还学生。
    (3)学生在征兵报名时将《申请表》交至入伍所在地县级人民政府征兵办公室(以下简称“县级征兵办”)。学生通过征兵体检被批准入伍后,县级征兵办对《申请表》加盖公章并返还学生。
    (4)学生将《申请表》原件和入伍通知书复印件,寄送至原就读高校学生资助管理部门。
    58. 因个人原因被部队退回,高校学生已获国家资助的经费要被收回吗?
    因本人思想原因、故意隐瞒病史或弄虚作假、违法犯罪等行为造成退兵的学生,学校取消其受助资格,并不得申请学费减免。各省(区、市)人民政府征兵办公室应在接收退兵后及时将被退回学生的姓名、就读高校、退兵原因等情况逐级上报至国防部征兵办公室,并按照学生原就读高校的隶属关系,通报同级教育行政部门。
    被部队退回并被取消资助资格的学生,如学生返回其原户籍所在地,已补偿的学费或代偿的国家助学贷款资金由学生户籍所在地县级教育行政部门会同同级人民政府征兵办公室收回;如学生返回其原就读高校,已补偿的学费或代偿的国家助学贷款由学生原就读高校会同退役安置地县级人民政府征兵办公室收回。各县级教育行政部门和各高校应在收回资金后十日内,逐级汇总上缴全国学生资助管理中心。收回资金按规定作为下一年度学费补偿或国家助学贷款代偿经费。
    59. 高校毕业生入伍服义务兵役年限是多少?
    我国现行的义务兵役制度服役年限是两年。
    60. 大学生士兵退役后享受哪些就学优惠政策?
    (1)高职(专科)学生入伍经历可作为毕业实习经历。
    (2)退役大学生士兵入学或复学后免修军事技能训练,直接获得学分。
    (3)设立“退役大学生士兵”专项硕士研究生招生计划。根据实际需求,每年安排一定数量专项计划,专门面向退役大学生士兵招生。专项计划规模控制在5000人以内,在全国研究生招生总规模内单列下达,不得挪用。
    (4)将高校在校生(含高校新生)服兵役情况纳入推免生遴选指标体系。鼓励开展推荐优秀应届本科毕业生免试攻读研究生工作的高校在制定本校推免生遴选办法时,结合本校具体情况,将在校期间服兵役情况纳入推免生遴选指标体系。在部队荣立二等功及以上的退役人员,符合研究生报名条件的可免试(指初试)攻读硕士研究生。
    (5)将考研加分范围扩大至高校在校生(含高校新生)。退役人员在继续实行普通高校应届毕业生退役后按规定享受加分政策的基础上,允许普通高校在校生(含高校新生)应征入伍服义务兵役退役,在完成本科学业后3年内参加全国硕士研究生招生考试,初试总分加10分,同等条件下优先录取。
    (6)退役大学生士兵专升本实行招生计划单列。高职(专科)学生应征入伍服义务兵役退役,在完成高职学业后参加普通本科专升本考试,实行计划单列,录取比例在现行30%的基础上适度扩大,具体比例由各省份根据本地实际和报名情况确定。
    (7)高校新生录取通知书中附寄应征入伍优惠政策。高校向新生寄送《录取通知书》时,附寄应征入伍宣传单,宣传单主要内容包括优惠政策概要、报名流程指南、学籍注册要求等。
    (8)放宽退役大学生士兵复学转专业限制。大学生士兵退役后复学,经学校同意并履行相关程序后,可转入本校其他专业学习。
    (9)具有高职(高专)学历的,退役后免试入读成人本科,或经过一定考核入读普通本科;荣立三等功以上奖励的,在完成高职(专科)学业后,免试入读普通本科;
    (10)应征入伍的高校毕业生退役后报考政法干警招录培养体制改革试点招生时,教育考试笔试成绩总分加10分。
    61. 什么是政法干警招录培养体制改革试点考试?
    国家为培养政治业务素质高,实战能力强的应用型、复合型政法人才,加强政法机关公务员队伍建设,2008年开始重点从部队退役士兵和普通高校毕业生中选拔优秀人才,为基层政法机关特别是中西部和其他经济欠发达地区的县(市)级以下基层政法机关提供人才保障和智力支持。
    62. 应征入伍的高校应届毕业生离校后户口档案存放在哪里,如何迁转?
    被确定为预征对象的高校应届毕业生,回入学前户籍所在地应征的,将户口迁回入学前户籍所在地,档案转到入学前户籍所在地人才交流中心存放。在学校所在地应征的,可将户籍和档案暂时保留在学校。
    高校应届毕业生批准入伍后,其户口档案予以注销,档案放入新兵档案。
    63. 高校应届毕业生退役后户档迁移有何优惠政策?
    高校应届毕业生入伍服义务兵役退出现役后一年内,可视同当年的高校应届毕业生,凭用人单位录(聘)用手续,向原就读高校再次申请办理就业报到手续,户档随迁(直辖市按照有关规定执行)。
    64. 什么是士官?与义务兵有什么区别?
    我军现役士兵按兵役性质分为义务兵役制士兵和志愿兵役制士兵。义务兵役制士兵称为义务兵,志愿兵役制士兵称为士官。士官属于士兵军衔序列,但不同于义务兵役制士兵,是士兵中的骨干。义务兵实行供给制,发给津贴,士官实行工资制和定期增资制度。
    65. 没有参加网上报名预征的大学生生是否还可以应征入伍并享受有关优惠政策?
    未参加网上报名预征的大学生,在征兵期间需要补办网上预征手续,没有经过网上报名预征的大学生不享受有关优惠政策。
    四、积极聘用高校毕业生参与国家和地方重大科研项目66. 国家和地方重大科研项目包括哪些?
    按照《科技部、教育部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部、国家自然科学基金委员会关于鼓励科研项目单位吸纳和稳定高校毕业生就业的若干意见》(国科发财〔2009〕97号)规定,由高校、科研机构和企业所承担的民口科技重大专项、973计划、863计划、科技支撑计划项目以及国家自然科学基金会的重大重点项目等,可以聘用高校毕业生作为研究助理或辅助人员参与研究工作。此外的其他项目,承担研究的单位也可聘用高校毕业生。
    67. 哪些高校毕业生可以被吸纳为研究助理或辅助人员?
    吸纳对象主要以优秀的应届毕业生为主,包括高校以及有学位授予权的科研机构培养的博士研究生、硕士研究生和本科生。
    68. 科研项目吸纳的高校毕业生是否为在编职工?
    不是项目承担单位的正式在编职工,被吸纳高校毕业生需与项目承担单位签订服务协议,明确双方的权利、责任和义务。
    69. 科研项目承担单位与被吸纳高校毕业生签订的服务协议应包含哪些内容?
    (1)项目承担单位的名称和地址;
    (2)研究助理的姓名、居民身份证号码和住址;
    (3)服务协议期限;
    (4)工作内容;
    (5)劳务性费用数额及支付方式;
    (6)社会保险;
    (7)双方协商约定的其他内容。
    服务协议不得约定由毕业生承担违约金。
    70. 服务协议的期限如何约定?
    根据《人力资源社会保障部办公厅关于重大科研项目单位吸纳高校毕业生参与研究工作签订服务协议有关问题的通知》(人社厅发〔2009〕47号)等文件规定,服务协议期限最多可签订三年,三年以下的服务协议期限已满而项目执行期未满的,根据工作需要可以协商续签至三年。
    71. 服务协议履行期间可以解除协议吗?
    服务协议履行期间,毕业生可以提出解除服务协议,但应提前15天书面通知项目承担单位。
    项目承担单位提出解除服务协议的,应当提前30日书面通知毕业生本人。研究助理被解除服务协议或协议期满终止后,符合条件的毕业生可按规定享受失业保险待遇。
    72. 被吸纳高校毕业生如何获取报酬?
    由项目承担单位向高校毕业生支付劳务性费用,具体数额按照国家有关规定、参照相应岗位标准,由双方协商确定。
    73. 项目承担单位是否给被吸纳的高校毕业生上保险?
    项目承担单位应当为毕业生办理社会保险,具体包括基本养老保险、基本医疗保险、失业保险、工伤保险、生育保险,并按时足额缴费。参保、缴费、待遇支付等具体办法参照各项社会保险有关规定执行。
    74. 被吸纳的高校毕业生户档如何迁转?
    毕业生参与项目研究期间,根据当地情况,其户口、档案可存放在项目承担单位所在地或入学前家庭所在地公共就业和人才服务机构。项目承担单位所在地或入学前家庭所在地公共就业和人才服务机构应当免费为其提供户口、档案托管服务。
    75. 服务协议期满后如何就业?
    协议期满,如果项目承担单位无意续聘,则毕业生到其他岗位就业。同时,国家鼓励项目承担单位正式聘用(招用)人员时,优先聘用担任过研究助理的人员。项目承担单位或其他用人单位正式聘用(招用)担任过研究助理的人员,应当分别依据《劳动合同法》、《国务院办公厅转发人事部关于在事业单位试行人员聘用制度意见的通知》(国办发〔2002〕35号)等规定执行。
    76. 毕业生服务协议期满被用人单位正式录(聘)用后,如何办理落户手续?工龄如何接续?
    担任过研究助理的人员被正式聘用(招用)后,按照有关规定,凭用人单位录(聘)用手续、劳动合同和《普通高等学校毕业证书》办理落户手续;工龄与参与项目研究期间的工作时间合并计算,社会保险缴费年限合并计算。
    五、鼓励支持高校毕业生自主创业,稳定灵活就业77. 高校毕业生自主创业,可以享受哪些优惠政策?
    按照《国务院关于进一步做好新形势下就业创业工作的意见》(国发〔2015〕23号)、《国务院办公厅关于深化高等学校创新创业教育改革的实施意见》(国办发〔2015〕36号)等文件规定,高校毕业生自主创业优惠政策主要包括:
    (1)税收优惠:简化大学生创业流程,取消《大学生自主创业证》。持人社部门核发《就业创业证》(注明“毕业年度内自主创业税收政策”)的高校毕业生在毕业年度内(指毕业所在自然年,即1月1日至12月31日)创办个体工商户、个人独资企业的,3年内按每户每年8000元为限额依次扣减其当年实际应缴纳的营业税、城市维护建设税、教育费附加和个人所得税。对高校毕业生创办的小型微利企业,按国家规定享受相关税收支持政策。
    (2)创业担保贷款和贴息支持:对符合条件的高校毕业生自主创业的,可在创业地按规定申请创业担保贷款,贷款额度为10万元。鼓励金融机构参照贷款基础利率,结合风险分担情况,合理确定贷款利率水平,对个人发放的创业担保贷款,在贷款基础利率基础上上浮3个百分点以内的,由财政给予贴息。
    (3)免收有关行政事业性收费:毕业2年以内的普通高校毕业生从事个体经营(除国家限制的行业外)的,自其在工商部门首次注册登记之日起3年内,免收管理类、登记类和证照类等有关行政事业性收费。
    (4)享受培训补贴:对高校毕业生在毕业学年(即从毕业前一年7月1日起的12个月)内参加创业培训的,根据其获得创业培训合格证书或就业、创业情况,按规定给予培训补贴。
    (5)免费创业服务:有创业意愿的高校毕业生,可免费获得公共就业和人才服务机构提供的创业指导服务,包括政策咨询、信息服务、项目开发、风险评估、开业指导、融资服务、跟踪扶持等“一条龙”创业服务。各地在充分发挥各类创业孵化基地作用的基础上,因地制宜建设一批大学生创业孵化基地,并给予相关政策扶持。对基地内大学生创业企业要提供培训和指导服务,落实扶持政策,努力提高创业成功率,延长企业存活期。
    (6)取消高校毕业生落户限制,允许高校毕业生在创业地办理落户手续(直辖市按有关规定执行)。
    78.大学生创业工商登记有什么要求?
    深化商事制度改革,进一步落实注册资本登记制度改革,坚决推行工商营业执照、组织机构代码证、税务登记证“三证合一”,推进“三证合一”登记制度改革意见和统一社会信用代码方案,实现“一照一码”。放宽新注册企业场所登记条件限制,推动“一址多照”、集群注册等,降低大学生创业门槛。
    79.对大学生自主创业学籍管理有什么要求?
    对有自主创业意愿的大学生,实施弹性学制,放宽学生修业年限,允许调整学业进程、保留学籍休学创新创业。
    80.高校对自主创业大学生可提供什么条件?
    建设一批大学生创业示范基地,继续推动大学科技园、创业园、创业孵化基地和实习实践基地建设,高校应开辟专门场地用于学生创新创业实践活动,教育部工程研究中心、各类实验室、教学仪器设备等原则上都要向学生开放。各高校要优化经费支出结构,多渠道统筹安排资金,支持创新创业教育教学,资助学生创新创业项目。
    81.高校毕业生怎样提升自主创业的能力?
    各高校要根据人才培养定位和创新创业教育目标要求,促进专业教育与创新创业教育有机融合,调整专业课程设置,挖掘和充实各类专业课程的创新创业教育资源,在传授专业知识过程中加强创新创业教育。面向全体学生开发开设创新创业必修课和选修课,纳入学分管理。
    各地人力资源社会保障部门已形成一些成熟的创业培训模式,如“GYB”(产生你的企业想法)、“SYB”(创办你的企业)、“IYB”(改善你的企业);高校毕业生可选择参加创业培训和实训,并可按规定享受培训补贴,以提高创业能力。
    82. 高校如何开展创新创业教育?
    健全创新创业教育课程体系。高校要加快创新创业教育优质课程信息化建设,推出一批资源共享的慕课、视频公开课等在线开放课程。建立在线开放课程学习认证和学分认定制度。组织学科带头人、行业企业优秀人才,联合编写具有科学性、先进性、适用性的创新创业教育重点教材。
    改革教学方法和考核方法。高校要广泛开展启发式、讨论式、参与式教学,扩大小班化教学覆盖面,推动教师把国际前沿学术发展、最新研究成果和实践经验融入课堂教学,注重培养学生的批判性和创造性思维,激发创新创业灵感。运用“大数据”技术,掌握不同学生学习需求和规律,为学生自主学习提供更加丰富多样的教育资源。改革考试考核内容和方式,注重考查学生运用知识分析、解决问题的能力,探索非标准答案考试,破除“高分低能”积弊。
    强化创新创业实践。高校要加强专业实验室、虚拟仿真实验室、创业实验室和训练中心建设,促进实验教学平台共享。各地区、各高校科技创新资源原则上向全体在校学生开放,开放情况纳入各类研究基地、重点实验室、科技园评估标准。鼓励各地区、各高校充分利用各种资源建设大学科技园、大学生创业园、创业孵化基地和小微企业创业基地,作为创业教育实践平台,建好一批大学生校外实践教育基地、创业示范基地、科技创业实习基地和职业院校实训基地。完善国家、地方、高校三级创新创业实训教学体系,深入实施大学生创新创业训练计划,扩大覆盖面,促进项目落地转化。举办全国大学生创新创业大赛,办好全国职业院校技能大赛,支持举办各类科技创新、创意设计、创业计划等专题竞赛。支持高校学生成立创新创业协会、创业俱乐部等社团,举办创新创业讲座论坛,开展创新创业实践。
    83. 如何向高校毕业生创设的小微企业优先转移科技成果?
    国家鼓励利用财政性资金设立的科研机构、普通高校、职业院校,通过合作实施、转让、许可和投资等方式,向高校毕业生创设的小微企业优先转移科技成果。
    84. 怎样申请创业担保贷款?在哪些银行可以申请创业担保贷款?
    创业担保贷款按照自愿申请、社区推荐、人力资源社会保障部门审查、贷款担保机构审核并承诺担保、商业银行核贷的程序,办理贷款手续。
    各国有商业银行、股份制商业银行、城市商业银行和城乡信用社都可以开办创业担保贷款业务,各地区根据实际情况确定具体经办银行。在指定的具体经办银行可以办理创业担保贷款。
    85. 哪些项目属于微利项目?
    微利项目由各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府结合当地实际情况确定,并报财政部、中国人民银行、人力资源和社会保障部备案。对于从事微利项目的,财政据实全额贴息,展期不贴息。
    86. 离校后未就业高校毕业生如何参加就业见习?
    人力资源社会保障部门通过媒体、公共就业和人才服务机构以及电视、网络、报纸等多种渠道,发布就业见习信息,公布见习单位名单、岗位数量、期限、人员要求等有关内容,或者组织开展见习单位和高校毕业生的双向选择活动,帮助离校未就业高校毕业生和见习单位对接。离校后未就业回到原籍的高校毕业生可与原籍所在地人力资源社会保障部门及当地团组织联系,主动申请参加就业见习。
    87. 就业见习期限有多长?
    高校毕业生就业见习期限一般为3-12个月。
    高校毕业生就业见习活动结束后,见习单位对高校毕业生进行考核鉴定,出具见习证明,作为用人单位招聘和选用见习高校毕业生的依据之一。在见习期间,由见习单位正式录(聘)用的,在该单位的见习期可以作为工龄计算。
    88. 离校未就业高校毕业生参加就业见习享受哪些政策和服务?
    (1)获得基本生活补助(基本生活补助费用由见习单位和地方政府分担,各地要根据当地经济发展和物价水平,合理确定和及时调整基本生活补助标准);
    (2)免费办理人事代理;
    (3)办理人身意外伤害保险;
    (4)见习期满未被录用可继续享受就业指导与服务。
    89. 见习单位能享受什么优惠政策?
    对企业(单位)吸纳离校未就业高校毕业生参加就业见习的,由见习企业(单位)先行垫付见习人员见习期间基本生活补助,再按规定向当地人力资源社会保障部门申请就业见习补贴。
    就业见习补贴申请材料应附:实际参加就业见习的人员名单、就业见习协议书、见习人员《身份证》、《登记证》复印件和大学毕业证复印件、企业(单位)发放基本生活补助明细账(单)、企业(单位)在银行开立的基本账户等凭证材料,经人力资源社会保障部门审核后,财政部门将资金支付到企业(单位)在银行开立的基本账户。
    见习单位支出的见习补贴相关费用,不计入社会保险缴费基数,但符合税收法律法规规定的,可以在计算企业所得税应纳税所得额时扣除。
    90. 高校毕业生如何申请参加职业培训?
    职业培训由各地人力资源社会保障部门负责组织实施。高校毕业生可到当地人力资源社会保障部门咨询了解职业培训开展情况,选择适宜的培训项目参加。
    职业培训工作主要由政府认定的培训机构、技工院校或企业所属培训机构承担。
    91. 高校毕业生能否享受职业培训补贴政策?如何申请职业培训补贴?
    高校毕业生毕业年度内参加就业技能培训或创业培训,可按规定向当地人力资源社会保障部门申请职业培训补贴。毕业后按规定进行了失业登记的高校毕业生参加就业技能培训或创业培训,也可向当地人力资源社会保障部门申请职业培训补贴。
    按照《财政部、人力资源社会保障部关于进一步加强就业专项资金管理有关问题的通知》(财社〔2011〕64号)等文件规定,申请材料经人力资源社会保障部门审核后,财政部门按规定将补贴资金直接拨付给申请者本人。职业培训补贴申请材料应附:培训人员《身份证》复印件、《就业创业证》复印件、职业资格证书(专项职业能力证书或培训合格证书)复印件、就业或创业证明材料、职业培训机构开具的行政事业性收费票据(或税务发票)等凭证材料。
    高校毕业生参加就业技能培训或创业培训后,培训合格并通过职业技能鉴定取得初级以上职业资格证书(未颁布国家职业技能标准的职业应取得专项职业能力证书或创业培训合格证书),6个月内实现就业的,按职业培训补贴标准的100%给予补贴。6个月内没有实现就业的,取得初级以上职业资格证书,按职业培训补贴标准的80%给予补贴;取得专项职业能力证书或创业培训合格证书,按职业培训补贴标准的60%给予补贴。
    92. 高校毕业生如何获取职业资格证书?
    高校毕业生个人可向职业技能鉴定所(站)自主申请职业技能鉴定。职业技能鉴定要参加理论知识考试和操作技能(专业能力)考核。经鉴定合格者,由人力资源社会保障部门核发相应的职业资格证书。
    93. 高校毕业生能否享受职业技能鉴定补贴政策,如何申请技能鉴定补贴?
    按照《财政部、人力资源社会保障部关于进一步加强就业专项资金管理有关问题的通知》(财社〔2011〕64号)等文件规定,对高校毕业生在毕业年度内通过初次职业技能鉴定并取得职业资格证书或专项职业能力证书的,按规定给予一次性职业技能鉴定补贴。
    通过初次职业技能鉴定并取得职业资格证书或专项职业能力证书的,可向职业技能鉴定所在地人力资源社会保障部门申请一次性职业技能鉴定补贴。职业技能鉴定补贴申请材料应附:申请人《身份证》复印件、《就业创业证》复印件、职业资格证书复印件、职业技能鉴定机构开具的行政事业性收费票据(或税务发票)等凭证材料,经人力资源社会保障部门审核后,财政部门按规定将补贴资金支付给申请者本人。
    六、为高校毕业生提供就业指导、就业服务和就业援助94. 主要有哪些机构为高校毕业生提供就业服务?
    (1)公共就业和人才服务机构由各级人力资源社会保障部门举办的公共就业和人才服务机构,为高校毕业生免费提供政策咨询、就业信息、职业指导、职业介绍、就业援助、就业与失业登记或求职登记等各项公共服务,按规定为登记失业高校毕业生免费提供人事档案管理等服务。此外,还定期开展面向高校毕业生的公共就业和人才服务专项活动,比如每年5月“民营企业招聘周”、每年9月“高校毕业生就业服务月”、每年11月“高校毕业生就业服务周”等,为高校毕业生和用人单位搭建供需对接平台。
    (2)高校毕业生就业指导机构目前,各省教育部门、各高校普遍建立了高校毕业生就业指导机构,为毕业生提供就业咨询、用人单位招聘及实习实训信息、求职技巧、职业生涯辅导、毕业生推荐、实习实践能力提升和就业手续办理等多项就业指导和服务。
    (3)职业中介机构主要包括从事人力资源服务的经营性机构,政府鼓励各类职业中介机构为高校毕业生提供就业服务,对为登记失业高校毕业生提供服务并符合条件的职业中介机构按规定给予职业介绍补贴。
    95. 职业中介机构如何享受职业介绍补贴?
    按照《财政部、人力资源社会保障部关于进一步加强就业专项资金管理有关问题的通知》(财社〔2011〕64号)等文件规定,在工商行政部门登记注册的职业中介机构,可按经其就业服务后实际就业的登记失业人员人数向当地人力资源社会保障部门申请职业介绍补贴。
    职业介绍补贴申请材料应附:经职业中介机构就业服务后已实现就业的登记失业人员名单、接受就业服务的本人签名及《居民身份证》(以下简称《身份证》)复印件、《就业创业证》(以下简称《登记证》)复印件、劳动合同等就业证明材料复印件、职业中介机构在银行开立的基本账户等凭证材料。申请材料经人力资源社会保障部门审核后,财政部门按规定将补贴资金支付到职业中介机构在银行开立的基本账户。
    96. 高校毕业生获取就业信息的主要渠道有哪些?
    (1)浏览各类就业信息网站,包括中央有关部门主办的全国性就业信息网站、地方有关部门主办的就业信息网站、各高校就业信息网站及校内bbs求职版面、其他专业性就业网站等;
    (2)参加各类招聘和双向选择活动,包括国家有关部门、各地、学校、用人单位等相关机构组织的各类现场或网络招聘活动;
    (3)参与校企合作实习,包括社会实践、毕业实习等活动;
    (4)查阅媒体广告,如报纸、刊物、电台、电视台、视频媒体等;
    (5)他人推荐,如导师、校友、亲友等;
    (6)主动到单位求职自荐等。
    97. 在校期间高校毕业生可以通过哪些途径提升就业能力?
    在学好专业知识技能的同时,根据学校要求或安排,毕业生可以通过选修或必修就业指导课程、参与学校组织的就业实习、技巧辅导、模拟招聘等活动,学习和了解相关职业的资料和信息,充分借助社会实践平台,全面提升就业能力。
    高校毕业生还可通过学校实施的毕业证书与职业资格证书“双证书”制度、组织到企业顶岗实习、参加人力资源社会保障部门认定的定点机构开展的职业技能培训等,切实增强自身的岗位适应能力与就业竞争力,促进职业素养的养成。
    98. 困难家庭高校毕业生包括哪些毕业生?享受哪些帮扶政策?
    困难家庭高校毕业生是指:来自城镇低保家庭、低保边缘户家庭、农村贫困家庭和残疾人家庭的普通高校毕业生。
    各级机关考录公务员、事业单位招聘工作人员时,免收困难家庭高校毕业生的报名费和体检费。
    为帮助困难家庭的高校毕业生求职就业,高校一般都会安排经费作为困难家庭毕业生的求职补助,或对已成功就业的困难家庭毕业生给予奖励。困难家庭的毕业生可向所在院系书面申请。学校也应根据平时掌握的情况,对困难家庭的毕业生给予主动帮助。
    从2013年起,对享受城乡居民最低生活保障家庭、获得国家助学贷款的毕业年度内高校毕业生,可给予一次性求职创业补贴,补贴标准由各省级财政、人力资源社会保障部门会同有关部门根据当地实际制定,所需资金按规定列入就业专项资金支出范围。
    99. 高校毕业生如何办理就业登记和失业登记?离校后未就业如何获得相应的就业指导和服务?
    在法定劳动年龄内、有劳动能力和就业要求、处于无业状态的城镇常住人员,可以到常住地的公共就业服务机构进行失业登记。各地公共就业服务机构要为登记失业的各类人员提供均等化的政策咨询、职业指导、职业介绍等公共就业服务和普惠性就业政策,并逐步使外来劳动者与当地户籍人口享有同等的就业扶持政策。将《就业失业登记证》调整为《就业创业证》,免费发放,作为劳动者享受公共就业服务及就业扶持政策的凭证。有条件的地方可积极推动社会保障卡在就业领域的应用。
    100. 离校未就业高校毕业生享受哪些服务和政策?
    按照《国务院办公厅关于做好2013年全国普通高等学校毕业生就业工作的通知》(国办发[2013]35号)和《人力资源社会保障部关于实施离校未就业高校毕业生就业促进计划的通知》(人社部发〔2013〕41号)要求,为做好离校未就业高校毕业生就业工作,从2013年起实施离校未就业高校毕业生就业促进计划:
    (1)地方各级人社部门所属公共就业人才服务机构和基层公共就业服务平台要面向所有离校未就业高校毕业生(包括户籍不在本地的高校毕业生)开放,办理求职登记或失业登记手续,发放《就业创业证》,摸清就业服务需求。其中,直辖市为非本地户籍高校毕业生办理失业登记办法按现行规定执行;
    (2)对实名登记的所有未就业高校毕业生提供更具针对性的职业指导;
    (3)对有求职意愿的高校毕业生要及时提供就业信息;
    (4)对有创业意愿的高校毕业生,各地要纳入当地创业服务体系,提供政策咨询、项目开发、创业培训、融资服务、跟踪扶持等“一条龙”创业服务。及时提供就业信息;
    (5)要将零就业家庭、经济困难家庭、残疾等就业困难的未就业高校毕业生列为重点工作对象,提供“一对一”个性化就业帮扶,确保实现就业;
    (6)对有就业见习意愿的高校毕业生,各地要及时纳入就业见习工作对象范围,确保能够随时参加;
    (7)对有培训意愿的离校未就业高校毕业生,各地要结合其专业特点,组织参加职业培训和技能鉴定,按规定落实相关补贴政策;
    (8)地方各级公共就业人才服务机构要为离校未就业高校毕业生免费提供档案托管、人事代理、社会保险办理和接续等一系列服务,简化服务流程,提高服务效率;有条件的地方可对到小微企业就业的离校未就业高校毕业生,提供免费的人事劳动保障代理服务;
    (9)加大人力资源市场监管力度,严厉打击招聘过程中的欺诈行为,及时纠正性别歧视和其他各类就业歧视。加大劳动用工、缴纳社会保险费等方面的劳动保障监察力度,切实维护高校毕业生就业后的合法权益。

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